Source analysis and risk evaluation of heavy metal in the river sediment of polymetallic mining area: Taking the Tonglüshan skarn type Cu-Fe-Au deposit as an example, Hubei section of the Yangtze River Basin, China
【摘要】：In this paper, 25 sampling points of overlying deposits in Tonglushan mining area, Daye City, Hubei Province, China were tested for heavy metal content to explore pollution characteristics, pollution sources and ecological risks of heavy metals in sediments. A geo-accumulation index method was used to evaluate the degree of heavy metal pollution in the sediment. The mean sediment quality guideline quotient was used for evaluating the ecological risk level of heavy metal in the sediment. And a method of correlation analysis, clustering analysis, and principal component analysis was used for preliminary analysis on the source of heavy metal in the sediment. It was indicated that there was extremely heavy metal pollution in the sediment, among which Cd was extremely polluted, Cu strongly contaminated, Zn, As, and Hg moderately contaminated, and Pb, Cr, and Ni were slightly contaminated. It was also indicated by the mean sediment quality guideline-quotient result that there was a high ecological risk of heavy metals in the sediment, and 64% of the sample sites had extremely high hidden biotoxic effects. For distribution, the contamination of branches was worse than that of the main channel of Daye Dagang, and the deposition of each heavy metal was mainly influenced by the distance from this sample site to the sewage draining exit of a tailings pond. The source analysis showed that the heavy metals in the sediment come from pollution discharging of mining and beneficiation companies, tailings ponds, smelting companies, and transport vehicles. In the study area, due to the influence of heavy metal discharging from these sources, the ecotoxicity of heavy metals in the sediment was extremely high, and Cd was the most toxic pollutant. The research figured out the key restoration area and elements for ecological restoration in the sediment of the Tonglüshan mining area, which could be referenced by monitoring and governance of heavy metal pollution in the sediment of the polymetallic mining area.